- Introduction ::BoliviaBackground:Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and countercoups. Democratic civilian rule was established in 1982, but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and illegal drug production. In December 2005, Bolivians elected Movement Toward Socialism leader Evo MORALES president - by the widest margin of any leader since the restoration of civilian rule in 1982 - after he ran on a promise to change the country's traditional political class and empower the nation's poor, indigenous majority. However, since taking office, his controversial strategies have exacerbated racial and economic tensions between the Amerindian populations of the Andean west and the non-indigenous communities of the eastern lowlands. In December 2009, President MORALES easily won reelection, and his party took control of the legislative branch of the government, which will allow him to continue his process of change. In October 2011, the country held its first judicial elections to appoint judges to the four highest courts.Geography ::BoliviaLocation:Central South America, southwest of BrazilGeographic coordinates:17 00 S, 65 00 WArea:total: 1,098,581 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 28land: 1,083,301 sq kmwater: 15,280 sq kmArea - comparative:slightly less than three times the size of MontanaLand boundaries:total: 6,940 kmborder countries: Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,423 km, Chile 860 km, Paraguay 750 km, Peru 1,075 kmCoastline:0 km (landlocked)Maritime claims:none (landlocked)Climate:varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiaridTerrain:rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon BasinElevation extremes:lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 mhighest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 mNatural resources:tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropowerLand use:arable land: 3.49%permanent crops: 0.2%other: 96.31% (2011)Irrigated land:1,282 sq km (2003)Total renewable water resources:622.5 cu km (2011)Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 2.64 cu km/yr (25%/14%/61%)per capita: 305.8 cu m/yr (2005)Natural hazards:flooding in the northeast (March to April)volcanism: volcanic activity in Andes Mountains on the border with Chile; historically active volcanoes in this region are Irruputuncu (elev. 5,163 m), which last erupted in 1995, and Olca-ParumaEnvironment - current issues:the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking and irrigationEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlandssigned, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life ConservationGeography - note:landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with PeruPeople and Society ::BoliviaNationality:noun: Bolivian(s)adjective: BolivianEthnic groups:Quechua 30%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 30%, Aymara 25%, white 15%Languages:Spanish (official) 60.7%, Quechua (official) 21.2%, Aymara (official) 14.6%, foreign languages 2.4%, other 1.2% (2001 census)Religions:Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist) 5%Demographic profile:Bolivia ranks at or near the bottom among Latin American countries in several areas of health and development, including poverty, education, fertility, malnutrition, mortality, and life expectancy. On the positive side, more children are being vaccinated and more pregnant women are getting prenatal care and having skilled health practitioners attend their births. Bolivia's income inequality is the highest in Latin America and one of the highest in the world. Public education is of poor quality, and educational opportunities are among the most unevenly distributed in Latin America, with girls and indigenous and rural children less likely to be literate or to complete primary school. The lack of access to education and family planning services helps to sustain Bolivia's high fertility rate - approximately three children per woman. Bolivia's lack of clean water and basic sanitation, especially in rural areas, contributes to health problems.Almost 7% of Bolivia's population lives abroad, primarily to work in Argentina, Brazil, Spain, and the United States. In recent years, more restrictive immigration policies in Europe and the United States have increased the flow of Bolivian emigrants to neighboring Argentina and Brazil.Population:10,461,053 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 82Age structure:0-14 years: 33.8% (male 1,800,381/female 1,733,366)15-24 years: 19.9% (male 1,053,952/female 1,028,169)25-54 years: 35.9% (male 1,825,535/female 1,928,945)55-64 years: 5.6% (male 272,980/female 311,312)65 years and over: 4.8% (male 223,933/female 282,480) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 66 %youth dependency ratio: 57.9 %elderly dependency ratio: 8.1 %potential support ratio: 12.3 (2013)Median age:total: 23.1 yearsmale: 22.3 yearsfemale: 23.8 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:1.63% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 74Birth rate:23.77 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 68Death rate:6.67 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 144Net migration rate:-0.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 145Urbanization:urban population: 67% of total population (2010)rate of urbanization: 2.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:LA PAZ (capital) 1.715 million; Santa Cruz 1.584 million; Sucre 307,000 (2011)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Mother's mean age at first birth:21.2note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008 est.)Maternal mortality rate:180 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)country comparison to the world: 60Infant mortality rate:total: 39.76 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 58male: 43.44 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 35.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 68.22 yearscountry comparison to the world: 161male: 65.47 yearsfemale: 71.11 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:2.87 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 67Contraceptive prevalence rate:60.5% (2008)Health expenditures:4.8% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 147Physicians density:1.22 physicians/1,000 population (2001)Hospital bed density:1.1 beds/1,000 population (2009)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 96% of populationrural: 71% of populationtotal: 88% of populationunimproved:urban: 4% of populationrural: 29% of populationtotal: 12% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 35% of populationrural: 10% of populationtotal: 27% of populationunimproved:urban: 65% of populationrural: 90% of populationtotal: 73% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:0.2% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 107HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:12,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 93HIV/AIDS - deaths:fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 66Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: very highfood or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis Avectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever (2013)Obesity - adult prevalence rate:17.9% (2008)country comparison to the world: 109Children under the age of 5 years underweight:4.5% (2008)country comparison to the world: 92Education expenditures:7.6% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 16Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 91.2%male: 95.8%female: 86.8% (2009 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 14 yearsmale: 14 yearsfemale: 13 years (2007)Child labor - children ages 5-14:total number: 553,323percentage: 26 %note: data represents children ages 5-13 (2008 est.)Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:total: 9.2%country comparison to the world: 113male: 7.3%female: 11.8% (2002)Government ::BoliviaCountry name:conventional long form: Plurinational State of Boliviaconventional short form: Bolivialocal long form: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivialocal short form: BoliviaGovernment type:republic; note - the new constitution defines Bolivia as a ""Social Unitarian State""Capital:name: La Paz (administrative capital)geographic coordinates: 16 30 S, 68 09 Wtime difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)note: Sucre (constitutional capital)Administrative divisions:9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, TarijaIndependence:6 August 1825 (from Spain)National holiday:Independence Day, 6 August (1825)Constitution:7 February 2009Legal system:civil law system with influences from Roman, Spanish, canon (religious), French, and indigenous lawInternational law organization participation:has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdictionSuffrage:18 years of age, universal and compulsoryExecutive branch:chief of state: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006); note - the president is both chief of state and head of governmenthead of government: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006)cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a five-year term and are eligible for re-election once; election last held on 6 December 2009 (next to be held in 2014)election results: Juan Evo MORALES Ayma reelected president; percent of vote - Juan Evo MORALES Ayma 64%; Manfred REYES VILLA 26%; Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana 6%; Rene JOAQUINO 2%; other 2%Legislative branch:bicameral Plurinational Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa Plurinacional consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (36 seats; members are elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve five-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats total; 70 uninominal deputies directly elected from a single district, 7 ""special"" indigenous deputies directly elected from non-contiguous indigenous districts, and 53 plurinominal deputies elected by proportional representation from party lists; all deputies serve five-year terms)elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held on 6 December 2009 (next to be held in 2014)election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MAS 26, PPB-CN 10; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MAS 89, PPB-CN 36, UN 3, AS 2; note - as of 15 February 2013, the current composition of the Chamber of Deputies is: MAS 88, PPB-CN 37, UN 3, AS 2Judicial branch:highest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (consists of 12 judges); Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal (consists of 7 primary and 7 alternate magistrates); Plurinational Electoral Organ (consists of 7 members)note - the 2009 constitution reformed the procedure for selecting judicial officials for the Supreme Court, Constitutional Tribunal, and the Plurinational Electoral Organ by direct national vote, which occurred in October 2011judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal judges elected by popular vote from list of candidates pre-selected by Plurinational Legislative Assembly for 6-year terms); Plurinational Electoral Organ members - 6 judges elected by the Assembly and 1 appointed by the president; judges and members serve 6-year termssubordinate courts: Agro-Environmental Court; Council of the Judiciary; District Courts (in each of the 9 administrative departments)Political parties and leaders:Bacada Indigena or BIBolivia-National Convergence or PPB-CN [Adrian OLIVA]Fearless Movement or MSM [Juan DE GRANADO Cosio]Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Juan Evo MORALES Ayma]National Unity or UN [Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana]People or Gente [Roman LOAYZA]Social Alliance or AS [Rene JOAQUINO]Political pressure groups and leaders:Bolivian Workers Central or COBFederation of Neighborhood Councils of El Alto or FEJUVELandless Movement or MSTNational Coordinator for Change or CONALCAMSole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCBother: Cocalero groups; indigenous organizations (including Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Eastern Bolivia or CIDOB and National Council of Ayullus and Markas of Quollasuyu or CONAMAQ); Interculturales union or CSCIB; labor unions (including the Central Bolivian Workers' Union or COB and Cooperative Miners Federation or FENCOMIN)International organization participation:CAN, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Freddy BERSATTI Tudelachancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008telephone:  (202) 483-4410FAX:  (202) 328-3712consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, New Yorknote: as of September 2008, the US has expelled the Bolivian ambassador to the USDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Larry MEMMOTTembassy: Avenida Arce 2780, Casilla 425, La Pazmailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032telephone:  (2) 216-8000FAX:  (2) 216-8111note: in September 2008, the Bolivian Government expelled the US Ambassador to Bolivia, and the countries have yet to reinstate ambassadorsFlag description:three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; red stands for bravery and the blood of national heroes, yellow for the nation's mineral resources, and green for the fertility of the landnote: similar to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; in 2009, a presidential decree made it mandatory for a so-called wiphala - a square, multi-colored flag representing the country's indigenous peoples - to be used alongside the traditional flagNational symbol(s):llama; Andean condorNational anthem:name: ""Cancion Patriotica"" (Patriotic Song)lyrics/music: Jose Ignacio de SANJINES/Leopoldo Benedetto VINCENTInote: adopted 1852Economy ::BoliviaEconomy - overview:Bolivia is one of the poorest and least developed countries in Latin America. Following a disastrous economic crisis during the early 1980s, reforms spurred private investment, stimulated economic growth, and cut poverty rates in the 1990s. The period 2003-05 was characterized by political instability, racial tensions, and violent protests against plans - subsequently abandoned - to export Bolivia's newly discovered natural gas reserves to large Northern Hemisphere markets. In 2005, the government passed a controversial hydrocarbons law that imposed significantly higher royalties and required foreign firms then operating under risk-sharing contracts to surrender all production to the state energy company in exchange for a predetermined service fee. The global recession slowed growth, but Bolivia recorded the highest growth rate in South America during 2009. During 2010-12 high world commodity prices sustained rapid growth and large trade surpluses. However, a lack of foreign investment in the key sectors of mining and hydrocarbons, along with growing conflict among social groups pose challenges for the Bolivian economy.GDP (purchasing power parity):$56.14 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 93$53.34 billion (2011 est.)$50.72 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$27.43 billion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:5.2% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 575.2% (2011 est.)4.1% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$5,200 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 157$5,000 (2011 est.)$4,900 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGross national saving:25.3% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 4028.4% of GDP (2011 est.)21.5% of GDP (2010 est.)GDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 60.6%government consumption: 13.7%investment in fixed capital: 18.3%investment in inventories: -1.5%exports of goods and services: 46.9%imports of goods and services: -38.1%(2012 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 9.6%industry: 38.3%services: 52.1% (2012 est.)Agriculture - products:soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes; Brazil nuts; timberIndustries:mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing, jewelryIndustrial production growth rate:5.2% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 51Labor force:4.718 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 82Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 32%industry: 20%services: 48% (2010 est.)Unemployment rate:7.5% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 845.7% (2011 est.)note: data are for urban areas; widespread underemploymentPopulation below poverty line:49.6%note: based on percent of population living on less than the international standard of $2/day (2010 est.)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 1%highest 10%: 45.4% (2007)Distribution of family income - Gini index:53 (2010)country comparison to the world: 1457.9 (1999)Budget:revenues: $12.64 billionexpenditures: $12.17 billion (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:46.1% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 21Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):1.7% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 27Public debt:34.6% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 10736.5% of GDP (2011 est.)note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entitiesFiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):4.5% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1369.9% (2011 est.)Central bank discount rate:4% (31 December 2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 1033% (31 December 2010 est.)Commercial bank prime lending rate:11.14% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 7810.92% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of narrow money:$7.32 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 88$6.13 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of broad money:$17.13 billion (31 December 2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 91$14.25 billion (31 December 2010 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$9.044 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 102$7.633 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$7.69 billion (31 December 2012)country comparison to the world: 81$6.089 billion (31 December 2011)$3.915 billion (31 December 2010)Current account balance:$271.8 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 51$537.2 million (2011 est.)Exports:$10.65 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 91$8.332 billion (2011 est.)Exports - commodities:natural gas, soybeans and soy products, crude petroleum, zinc ore, tinExports - partners:Brazil 40.3%, US 17.7%, Argentina 7.7%, Peru 5.3% (2012)Imports:$7.653 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 107$7.126 billion (2011 est.)Imports - commodities:petroleum products, plastics, paper, aircraft and aircraft parts, prepared foods, automobiles, insecticidesImports - partners:Chile 20.8%, Brazil 19.9%, Argentina 11.7%, US 9.9%, Peru 7.1%, Venezuela 6%, China 4.8% (2012)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$13.93 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 68$12.02 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Debt - external:$7.007 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 110$6.474 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$8.81 billion (31 December 2012)country comparison to the world: 83$7.75 billion (31 December 2011)Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$8 million (31 December 2011)country comparison to the world: 93$21 million (31 December 2010)Exchange rates:bolivianos (BOB) per US dollar -6.96 (2012 est.)6.9875 (2011 est.)7.0167 (2010 est.)7.07 (2009)7.253 (2008)Energy ::BoliviaElectricity - production:6.94 billion kWh (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 103Electricity - consumption:6.301 billion kWh (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 101Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 165Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 162Electricity - installed generating capacity:1.317 million kW (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 116Electricity - from fossil fuels:58.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 139Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 51Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:39.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 56Electricity - from other renewable sources:1.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 63Crude oil - production:40,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 64Crude oil - exports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 85Crude oil - imports:0.07 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 85Crude oil - proved reserves:209.8 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 59Refined petroleum products - production:314,700 bbl/day (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 42Refined petroleum products - consumption:45,840 bbl/day (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 101Refined petroleum products - exports:864.7 bbl/day (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 112Refined petroleum products - imports:14,150 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 122Natural gas - production:48.97 billion cu m (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 19Natural gas - consumption:8.59 billion cu m (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 53Natural gas - exports:40.28 billion cu m (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 10Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 162Natural gas - proved reserves:281.5 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 41Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:13.29 million Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 92Communications ::BoliviaTelephones - main lines in use:879,000 (2011)country comparison to the world: 83Telephones - mobile cellular:8.355 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 85Telephone system:general assessment: Bolivian National Telecommunications Company was privatized in 1995 but re-nationalized in 2007; the primary trunk system is being expanded and employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; system operations, reliability, and coverage have steadily improved.domestic: most telephones are concentrated in La Paz, Santa Cruz, and other capital cities; mobile-cellular telephone use expanding rapidly and, in 2011, teledensity reached about 80 per 100 personsinternational: country code - 591; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)Broadcast media:large number of radio and TV stations broadcasting with private media outlets dominating; state-owned and private radio and TV stations generally operating freely, although both pro-government and anti-government groups have attacked media outlets in response to their reporting (2010)Internet country code:.boInternet hosts:180,988 (2012)country comparison to the world: 75Internet users:1.103 million (2009)country comparison to the world: 95Transportation ::BoliviaAirports:855 (2013)country comparison to the world: 7Airports - with paved runways:total: 21over 3,047 m: 52,438 to 3,047 m: 41,524 to 2,437 m: 6914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 834over 3,047 m: 12,438 to 3,047 m: 41,524 to 2,437 m: 47914 to 1,523 m: 151under 914 m:631 (2013)Pipelines:gas 5,457 km; liquid petroleum gas 51 km; oil 2,511 km; refined products 1,627 km (2013)Railways:total: 3,652 kmcountry comparison to the world: 46narrow gauge: 3,652 km 1.000-m gauge (2010)Roadways:total: 80,488 kmcountry comparison to the world: 60paved: 11,993 kmunpaved: 68,495 km (2010)Waterways:10,000 km (commercially navigable almost exclusively in the northern and eastern parts of the country) (2012)country comparison to the world: 13Merchant marine:total: 18country comparison to the world: 98by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 14, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2foreign-owned: 5 (Syria 4, UK 1, (2010)Ports and terminals:river port(s): Puerto Aguirre (Paraguay/Parana)note: Bolivia has free port privileges in maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and ParaguayMilitary ::BoliviaMilitary branches:Bolivian Armed Forces: Bolivian Army (Ejercito Boliviano, EB), Bolivian Naval Force (Fuerza Naval Boliviana, FNB; includes Marines), Bolivian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana, FAB) (2013)Military service age and obligation:18-49 years of age for 12-month compulsory male and female military service; Bolivian citizenship required; 17 years of age for voluntary service; when annual number of volunteers falls short of goal, compulsory recruitment is effected, including conscription of boys as young as 14; 15-19 years of age for voluntary premilitary service, provides exemption from further military service (2013)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 2,472,490females age 16-49: 2,535,768 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 1,762,260females age 16-49: 2,013,281 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 108,334female: 104,945 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:0.9% of GDP (2012)country comparison to the world: 143Transnational Issues ::BoliviaDisputes - international:Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, but Chile offers instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile for Bolivian natural gas; contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of the border with ArgentinaIllicit drugs:world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru) with an estimated 35,000 hectares under cultivation in 2009, an increase of ten percent over 2008; third largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 195 metric tons potential pure cocaine in 2009, a 70 percent increase over 2006; transit country for Peruvian and Colombian cocaine destined for Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Europe; weak border controls; some money-laundering activity related to narcotics trade; major cocaine consumption (2008)"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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